Last Update: 01.10.2012
Source: The World Factbook
Tunisia is bordering the Mediterranean Sea as well as Algeria and Libya. The Tunisian climate is characterized by hot and dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Mountains can be found in the north of the country and desert in the south.
The main natural resources that can be found in Tunisia are petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc and salt. In Tunisia, only very few natural freshwater resources exist. The situation is worsened by water pollution that results from raw sewage. A further health problem is caused by toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Moreover, the country is facing deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and desertification.
People and Society
At present, 10,732,900 people are living in Tunisia. With 760.000 inhabitants, Tunis is the largest city and the capital of the country. 98% of the Tunisian population is Arab, 1% European and another 1% Jewish and other ethnic groups. Arabic is the official language and next to French one language of commerce. With 98%, Islam is the most common religion in Tunisia. 1% of the population are Christians and a further 1% are Jewish and other religion.
Tunisia has a quite young population, even though the young population is declining. Around 23% are 0-14 years old, 69% are 15-64 and another 7.5% are 65 and older. In 2012, the birth rate was 17.28 birth/1,000 population and the death rate 5.87 death/ 1,000 population. The Tunisian government is spending more than 7% of its GDP for educational expenditures. All 6 to 15 year olds are required to attend school. The educational system is quite similar to the French system. Students attend the first six years of school in the primary cycle. After that, students attend three years in basic education colleges and another four years in lycées, where they receive a pre-university public schooling and can specialize in a particular field.
Tunisia under the Regime of Ben Ali
Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali seized to power in 1987, when he dispossessed president Bourguiba from his power as president. Tunisian politics have always focused on market-based economic development and women's rights. Yet, opposition groups, independent journalists, secular activist and Islamists were heavily repressed. Many had to face jail-time, including torture and harassment.
Ben Ali's success was founded on his party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally party. He had won five presidential elections with the last being held in 2009. He won 90% of the votes, a result that is highly unlikely in a democratic election. He achieved his success with tight restrictions of the media and opposition candidates. During the Ben Ali regime, opposition parties were weak and regime critics were jailed.
Even though the Tunisian bureaucracy itself was regarded as not being as corrupt as the systems of other countries in the region, the family of Ben Ali and his acquaintances were highly corrupt.
Under Ben Ali, Tunisia used to be among the worst rating countries in the Arab world for independent journalists. From 1987 until 2010, journalist "have been detained, physically assaulted, fired from their jobs, prevented from leaving the country and monitored by the efficient police services", as it was noted by Freedom House.
The state did not only control the media, but also mosques throughout the country. Imams were appointed and paid by the state and the mosques were not allowed to be open in between prayer hours. Another aspect of the authoritarian Tunisia was the limited academic freedom. The authorities strictly controlled professors in their discussions. Topics criticizing the regime were strictly forbidden in schools, universities, or public forums. Furthermore, Ben Ali heavily restricted the right to freedom of association and assembly, even though these rights were guaranteed in the constitution. Especially human right groups were suffering from the restrictions, as they were not able to act legally.
During the year 2010 and hence shortly before the Tunisian revolution broke out, Ben Ali advocated constitutional amendments in the media, which would have allowed him to run for president for a sixth time. Moreover, a law was passed in the summer of 2010 which repressed opposition movements even further. It was finally the authoritarian rule of Ben Ali, the bad economic situation which resulted in high unemployment and a lack of future prospects for the youth as well as unjust treatment on side of the police that finally led to demonstrations breaking out in December 2010.
Muhamed Bouazazi, a young vegetable seller, caused the revolution to begin. Faced with humiliation by the police, poverty and no other employment chances, Bouazizi decided to end his life by setting himself on fire. His story became a symbol for the revolution, which caused Ben Ali to resign and flee the country. Yet, the revolution did also cause nearly 220 demonstrators losing their lives in clashes with the police. Moreover, the Tunisian revolution caused popular protests to break out in several other authoritarian countries in North Africa.
Political System and Recent Develoments
The assassination of the opposition leader Mohammed Al-Brahmi in July 2013 - only after 6 months from Chukri Belaid’s killing - sparked a new wave of outrage all over Tunisia. Demands were raised for the Ennahda-led coalition government to resign. The protests were led by the newly formed National Salvation Front (NSF).
Eventually, the protests forced Ennahda to accept a new deal, with other political actors, to create a care-taker government and to set dates of the presidential and parliamentary elections. By the end of the same month, Ennahda declared its intentions of stepping down and relinquishing power voluntarily. In November 2013, both the ongoing political stagnation and armed groups violence led to the extension of the state of emergence that was imposed since the revolution erupted.
By January 2014, Tunisia took two steps towards political stability by approving the new constitution by overwhelming majority 200 out of 206 and inaugurating the government of prime minister Mehdi Jomaa who formed a new cabinet of independents and technocrats, to run the country till next elections.
After the political arena had became relatively stable the state of emergence was lifted by a decree of President Marzouki in March 2014.
Regarding transitional justice, Tunisia has launched in June 2014, the Truth and Dignity Commission TDC that has a four year mandate with the possibility of a further extension of one year. In December 2014, it has started, investigations on the political, social and economic crimes committed since the Republic Declaration in 1956.
By October 2014, Ennhada party lost its majority in parliament in favor of the newly formed secular party Nidaa Tounes that has gained 83 seats out of 217 (38%), while Ennhada secured 68 seats (31%). Two months later, Beji Caid Essebsi (88 years) won the first presidential elections with 55.68% of the vote, following his Nidaa Tounes party’s success. Despite critics considering Essebsi inauguration, in January 2015, as a signal of the old regime return, Tunisia has ended the transitional period peacefully in early 2015 with the new president, constitution and parliament.
In February 2015, a coalition party has been formed between Nidaa Tounes and Ennahda after the parliament’s threat of rejecting Habib Essid’s cabinet because of disputes over the absence of ministers from Ennahda party. Nidaa Tounes has taken 6 ministries, including the foreign affairs one, while the interior, defense and justice ministries have gone to independents. Ennahda has been given the labour ministry and three secretary of state posts. A few days later, a crisis erupted among Nidaa Tounes party’s ranks who opposed this unity government for ideological and organizational causes.
In March 2015, a terrorist attack against the Bardo Museum left 25 dead including the two attackers; many of the victims were foreign tourists. In late June 2015, Tunisia was hit again by the terrorist attack that targeted tourists and killed 38 persons in a resort in Sousse. ISIS the (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) has claimed responsibility for the two aforementioned attacks. Fearing another possible attack could cause the country to collapse, Essebsi declared the state of emergence on the 4th of July for 30 days that has been extended for two more months to be expired on the 2nd of October 2015.
This step casted doubts on the future of democracy in Tunisia, along with a speech by Essebsi in which he warned to use Article 80 of the new constitution of 2014 that stipulates: "In the event of imminent danger threatening the nation's institutions or the security or independence of the country, and hampering the normal functioning of the state, the president of the republic may take any measures necessitated by the exceptional circumstances”.
It is worth to mention that Human Rights Watch has suggested in April 2015 that the proposal of a new counter-terrorism law that the government is drafting could potentially lead to serious human rights abuses, including permitting extended incommunicado detention, weakening the trial guarantees for people charged with terrorism offenses and allowing the death penalty for anyone convicted for a lethal terrorist attack.
According to the World Bank, the political and social instability during 2013 and 2014, have led to a slowdown of Tunisia economic growth. The Tunisian economy grew by 3.6% in 2012, slowed down to 2.6% in 2013. It is estimated that growth will remain modest at 2.2% for 2014. Unemployment remains at 15.3% from 16.7% in 2011, but still above the pre-revolution level of 13%.
By the end of 2013, the number of unemployed has reached 600,000 among young people, while 20% of the nation suffered abject poverty. In response, Tunisia has sought foreign aid to finance development projects. The energy sector is heavily subsidized in Tunisia. Subsidies for natural gas as well as electricity have seen a sharp increase in the early 2000s. In 2012, energy subsidies have amounted to 5,600 million TND (3,100 million EUR), i.e. 20% of public budget or 9% of GDP, comparing to 3% in 2005. This large increase in subsidies has serious consequences on public spending in general.
Tourism industry has been negatively damaged due to the latest terrorist attacks and security instability. Tunisia has estimated tourism loss in 2015 by at least $515 million. Moreover, it has gained $1.95 billion in revenues from tourism in 2014. The sector consists 7% of the GDP and is considered to be a major source of foreign currency and employment, as well.
Mainly the government’s plans to invest in economic development have been hampered by the financial difficulties. Tunisia is seeking to get $1.3bn in loans in order to face the budget deficit of 2015. In May 2015, the US declared it would grant Tunisia $134 million aid for the year 2015 and up to $500 million loan for economic reforms.
Relations with the EU
In March 2014, the EU and Tunisia have established their “Mobility Partnership” that aims to facilitate the movement of people between the two partners and to promote a common and responsible management of migration influx, including simplifying visa procedures. The EU will also back Tunisia in its efforts concerning asylum seekers.
The EU is planning to strongly support Tunisia by the new financial instrument to help neighboring countries, the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI), that will aid the North African country under the new Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-2020. The EU had doubled its financial assistance to Tunisia since the revolution under the previous Neighbourhood Instrument by €485 million, 60% of which directed to supporting the budget. Currently, the European Parliament is about to vote a 300 million euros assistance for the macro-financial sector in loans.
On the trade level, the EU is considered to be the most vital partner of Tunisia in 2012 with 71.3% of exports and 62.4% of imports. Moreover, it is the biggest investor with about 90% of foreign ownership in companies in Tunisia.
In July 2015, the EU foreign ministers have agreed on several measures to provide assistance to Tunisia after the latest terrorist attacks. The EU is still considering sending military advisers to Tunisia to train security forces on protecting key tourist sites. Furthermore, the measures seek to assist Tunisia economically by mainly raising of olive oil imports into the EU.
By the second half of 2013, Tunisian security situation has started to deteriorate when 8 soldiers were killed in the Mount Chaambe near the borders with Algeria where the Army conducted a special operation against militants there. In June 2014, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb claimed, for the first time in Tunisia, responsibility for an attack on the interior minister's home that killed four policemen. While in July of the same year, Islamist militants (Ansar al-Sharia) launched the deadliest attack ever against Tunisian soldiers killed 15 of them in the Mount Chaambi.
One month later, the US pledged to grant Tunisia $60 million as a military aid to fight militants. The money would be dedicated to equipment to detect explosive devices, new boats and training of the troops. Fears of destabilizing the newly emerging democracy in the North Africa have raised after the Islamic State claimed responsibility for the two terrorist attack against the tourists in a country that depends mainly on tourism as the main source of foreign currency and national income. The second attack, in late June, led to the fleeing of thousands of foreign tourists, especially after the British Foreign office warned against another attack was “highly likely”.
Tunisia declared the state of emergency in July. The country has deployed 100,000 security personnel in an attempt to prevent any new attacks, including 3,000 dedicated to protecting beaches, hotels and archaeological sites. However, Essebsi government has found that these measures could not be enough without building a buffer wall on its porous borders with Libya (a 459km with Tunisia), where the Islamic State along with a large number of militants have found a safe heaven. It would stretch 160km inland from the coast, and be completed by the end of 2015.
Tunisia is also anticipating the return of hundreds of terrorists, who have travelled to fight with jihadist formations in Iraq and Syria and now plan to come back. It has been estimated that approximately 3000 Tunisians have left their country in order to fight for the Islamic State and other Jihadist armed groups. Moreover, Tunisia has also long been engaged in fighting militants linked to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) along its border with Algeria, a country that has long suffered from Jihadist terrorist activities during the nineties.
This background paper has been complied with the support of Ms. Dina Aboel Maaref, Visiting Fellow in C·A·P’s Middle East Section. The research fellowship is a part of an internship supported by the ifa (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen) and the Federal Foreign Office of Germany.
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